I had a similar issue, and I saw your note on top but it sounds like text book bad alternator. Start by bench testing the alternator at a parts store, or grab a voltmeter and check the battery and alternator voltage. It sounds like your battery will take a jump but the alternator is not charging the system after it starts. If the alternator is not working the voltage will drain causing the dim lights and error codes that your components are failing. I did a visual on my alternator and found the positive cable was melted to the terminal. Once I got the cable cleaned off and changed the alternator, it started and ran fine. This was not on my Charger but on my 2016 Ram 1500 eco. Hope this helps. Apologies if this is not the fix.